Transportation asset management is a systematic process for the operation, maintenance, and upgrade of physical transportation assets over their life cycle. Although transportation asset management has continued to evolve over the years, the integration of transportation resilience into the process is an ongoing challenge for transportation agencies. Given that natural hazard events can result in significant damage to assets as well as cascading effects on other critical networks that depend on transportation systems to operate, the importance of this challenge cannot be overstated. Consequently, this paper presents a systematic literature review on the integration of resilience and risk into transportation asset management, with a focus on road networks, in order to understand the current state of the art and practice and to identify the ongoing challenges in the field. The review specifically focuses on the integration guidelines adopted by different countries and departments of transportation, as well as the different consequence modeling approaches used, resilience metrics, and methods to integrate transportation resilience into transportation asset management. A number of research gaps in the current state of the art and practice are then highlighted, and potential future research directions are presented.